How to make Sawhorses Episode 1 | Paul Sellers

How to make Sawhorses Episode 1 | Paul Sellers
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    I want to walk you through the layout for this project and I've got four legs
    one cross beam this is the main beam that goes across joining the four legs
    like the hub of the legs if you like what I've got is one on three quarters
    by two and three quarters very standard stock English size square edge material
    that the cross beam is one and three quarters by three and three quarters so
    basically that would be our equivalent of a four by two and a three by two in
    the America that would be a two by three and a two by four but the sizes
    are different so what I wanted to do is lay this out in such a way that it would
    be very visible for you and what I have is a second hand piece of plywood of
    which this edge is rough sawn not machined this is being crosscut by hand
    and it's a bit uneven this one is a machined edge so I can rely on that so
    to get the square edge just in case you don't know how just take a point on here
    any arbitrary point just four or five inches in from the end here and make a mark and
    then measure from that mark any multiple you're going to measure multiples of
    three four and five so I'm going up here in 6-inch multiples and that's going to
    be 18 inches and then I'm going to come across here to this mark and that's
    going to be 24 inches ignore this line because this line came after this so
    then I take my tape measure and where I measured up here to make this line which
    was going across this way I took another line from this point here so I set this
    onto that mark and I marked this one and this one's going to be 30 inches so
    that's five multiples of six in other words so I had 18 24 and 30 now it could
    be 15 20 and 25 it could be easy multiples like that so any of those and
    where that intersection takes place here that's going to be exactly 90 degrees to
    this so then wherever I started this from here I just take a straight edge
    like this and strike a line and that gives me a perfect 90 degrees this is
    dead on 90 degrees so that works very well if you don't have a square edge if
    you've got a machined edge here and a machine edge here just use those as
    perfect what we're going to do the overall height of my sawhorse is 26
    inches that's a good kneeling height and I can cut it down I can't go any higher
    because of who I am and you make these to suit you so measure up 26 inches here
    and 26 inches anywhere along here just to give you a parallel line and I'm
    going to put mine I've cut these two lengths so this is the the right length
    of 30 inches I'm going to put this on that line there so I'm on the line here
    and I'm on the line here and I am flush here on the end with this line here so
    in other words that would represent this part here that would represent this in
    relation to this part so this is perpendicular to the floor so when I
    stand on here or kneel on here is not tipping the sawhorse away from it so
    that's this one don't worry about this don't sweat it just yet I've got a
    second piece of wood with a square edge here and I'm going to put this on my
    line here at the bottom and then I'm going to take the actual leg and I'm
    going to measure in five inches from the end of this piece of wood here on the
    bottom edge here like this that's going to mark the start position for my recess
    that I'm going to put in here I'm going to make a recessed housing so this goes
    on this line and this goes at the bottom corner here so I'm dead on this
    bottom line hang on I need to move over just over there alright so this goes
    here and that's giving me the actual splay
    that I need for the recesses so in other words now when I actually cut the recess
    this will end up in this direction too so it forms a sort of a triangle which
    is the chart that which is supposedly the strongest geometric shape used in
    engineering and this is engineering in a sense so now here I'm going to make a
    mark across here just to give me a visual line here and going on the inside
    and that's going to give me the position of this recess in relation to the leg
    I've got the sliding bevel here I slide this up underneath here and I set this
    to that angle can you see so I've got that set so give it a turn and now I can
    use this to establish my actual cut lines for doing the recess so there's my
    pencil line I can go on here now make an initial knife cut here and then I can
    take my material that I'm using for the actual leg slide it up against the bevel
    and make a knife wall just as if I'm reaching under this corner and already I
    can see a slight discrepancy between the pencil line and my actual cut line so
    my knife goes here and I make a light pass just like this that's giving me the
    cut line that I need now I'm going to put the bruising on the waste side this
    is the waste side here this goes here like this and those are the cut lines
    for my recess very simple now I'm going to take my square use the pencil as
    temporary guide line go on to the knife wall line and make a mark here and here
    and I'm also going to mark this here and here because I want the same on this
    other side on the underside I use a knife
    for my registration point here and here though I do mark these at the same
    time because that's giving me the exact line set a marking gauge to half an inch
    deep and you could go less if you've got narrower material you could go
    three-eighths of an inch deep I'm going a little bit deeper because I've got a
    good broad top piece here some very hard wood this goes in between those two
    lines and it wouldn't matter if you went past the line particularly this is a
    sawhorse so just trail that pin like that let me thicken that in for you just so
    you can see where I am flip over and do the same from this top face so this is
    the top edge of my saw horse so this comes out and the same on this one now
    then you can from here on you could rely on this this would give you the angle
    that you need for the shoulder lines here if you cut line to the say here one
    two one two and that should correspond with your leg here which in this case
    I'm about half a millimeter under which is fine because I would just take a
    shaving off the piece of wood for that distance I wouldn't sweat it at all so
    these now become the cut lines now if you want to you can simply measure you
    know this was five inches from here to here if I remember correctly so I've got
    five inches here instead of going through all that pallava again you can
    just simply mark this make a visual wrong way make a visual
    here drop your piece of wood on purely the pencil line is just to give you a
    sight line really that will be more I'm going to go here well here create my
    knife wall more heavily with the second pass and then very heavy with the third
    drop this on here light pass I'm turning it round so the bruising goes on the
    waste side of the wood into that cut line so I listen for that click drop in
    here like this and now it's exactly the same as before use your pencil like this
    this is my top face this is the underside run your gauge lines half an
    inch there we go so these are my depth lines for my recesses and now we're
    going to cut those which you would anyhow so I want to know which is my top so
    this is my top base I'm going to mark this now just to remind me because this
    is going to be the visible place and even though it's a sawhorse I still want
    to be careful about how this comes out so now we'll cut the recess and I'll
    show you how to do that
    I just took the first one that I made or laid out against the second one and
    I transferred the lines directly from it and then I checked to make sure the
    recesses were the right size by taking that directly from my material for the
    legs so there may be some slight variance in the leg width and you have
    to be guarded to make sure you don't just automatically do everything the
    same when you're working with um tools but it's very easy to work this way so I
    put these two together use this as a datum point and I transferred all my
    lines that way so that's how I've set the second one out so I know they'll be
    the same so I'll set that aside and we'll recess this one so just check
    yourself because sometimes you're working with this material and you put
    your layout line this way and you've got these going in the same direction
    something's wrong we should be coming to a point like this so we're going to take
    this out this out this out and this out this is a housing joint we've already
    got the cut lines directly with the knife so now into the knife wall here I can't
    emphasis would be easy to do on a machine but the other part the counter
    part that goes into the leg the work we do on the leg is very different so we
    have to consider this because this makes woodworking so simple I made the recess
    to drop my saw in as I usually do just notice that so right up against the
    knife wall and now work exactly no longer thinking about the angle now work
    directly to your square line this way down to the line I've marked this at the
    top so I know on the top I can't go past my line on the underside it won't be
    seen if I go past my line I'm going to work towards being accurate
    now you can take a few more out like this but only if you want to you could
    leave it solid and not do this I'm going to go in here now take this down here
    nice and this just takes out the bulk of the waste like this then I go with the
    heel of my hand here follow the line of the recess like this just take a nudge
    out those pinnacle points now this is my top face so I can actually go all the
    way through on that underside and not worry too much as long as I'm careful I
    guess the question comes now would I use a router to guarantee the depth probably
    not I'm going directly because this is so narrow and it's less critical so I'm
    writing my cut line and I'm following my gauge line exactly because I want this
    to be crisp on this top edge it's going to be seen so I take this out here
    so I've got an incline now from this side now I'm trying to go level here
    like this you see inside here so this is level I've got a crisp joint line here
    crisp here crisp here now I come from the underside edge so it's nice to have
    these reference phases where you can visualize what's critical
    so I know I'm flat there I'm perfectly happy on this here I'm going to come in
    here and I'm just going to pare down this one trying not to undercut because
    it's visible this just cleans out the saw fuzziness left by the saw there and
    that's how we cut the recesses so I have seven more to do if I'm making the two
    sawhorses so we'll get back together when this is done this let me give you
    one quick but see how this goes there we go so I'm dead on there's no gap either
    side I'm perfectly happy with it that's what I was looking for and that's what
    we'll do on the others I've got all my recesses cut for both
    sawhorses set one aside I'm going to show you how
    we get this compound angle and layout for it I've got each of my legs are
    numbered for the recesses so this will go into this one hopefully and what
    we're going to do is we're going to aim for this point here to be flush on this
    top edge you could overhang slightly you know 1/16 or two mil so I'm going to
    drop this in here get this fully seated down onto this line all the way down
    like that and I've left it past can you see that's adequate and the reason I've
    left that past is so that when I come to saw cut this the saw will take the
    full end of that piece off when I come to it this is nine inches this stick and it
    goes under the leg near to the end it doesn't have to be right on the end but
    I've got it flush with the bottom edge of the piece of wood I've got flush with
    the bottom corner here and I want to bring this around here like this so this
    now is lying flat on my bench top and this leg is elevated nine inches so I'm
    going to make sure this is fully seated
    that feels great this is good and the both edges of the
    bed of the sawhorse crossbeam are down so there's no gaps on either side that's
    very important the next important thing I'm just going to use a 3/8 chisel here
    for my spacer and a good sharp pencil that gets tight into the corner like
    this so this goes here now you can just use a 3/8 packing if you want to this
    goes here and that's giving me cut line I go onto this other side here and I do
    exactly the same no different so I've got these two lines now
    just like this one and this is what we call a scribe cut and it's got one on
    that side like that you can see inside here how the stick was keeping this
    distance up that's because I wanted that splay now just to make sure I don't bump
    here I'm going to put the stick back under here back to that point so that's
    my datum point now I'm going to go with a straight edge on the underside of the
    beam across the beam like this so this now goes under here I'm pushing it with my
    thumb to get the exact line that I want and then squeeze this here this line
    comes here that's going to be the seat cut I do the same on this side
    just the same way exactly the same and I get this seat cut we take this take this
    out so now we have this compound line which is kind of like a bird's mouth
    oops
    this comes here see this and this they're different heights from the top
    this is what's going to undergird the crossbeam so when I joined this point to
    this point this is where I get that compound seeker and this is where you
    start to see that it's not impossible but it's tricky on the top edge here we
    have two more points we want to connect so I've got this one here and this one
    here now another straight edge across here this isn't perfectly parallel to
    the outside edge and it doesn't need to be
    so now you can see that wasn't complicated if you try to write this
    down in a book it might be more complicated but this is so simple
    because you can see it now you can set your sliding bevel to an angle that
    compensates to that just so you can have a knife wall to work too if you want to
    so I'm going to do that here like this and that just gives me a hard line to
    pull my knife to this goes here so this is cross-grain cut that's why we're
    doing this I'm going to saw down that shoulder line I'll go with a tenon
    saw dovetail saw used to refining line and lead I've gone across now I'm going
    to follow the angle here like this now could technically go just from one
    side like that but I'm going to go from both sides it is a single plane it's in
    one plane so it would be the same but this just gives me an extra confidence
    I'm following this line on this side now down into the line the pencil line try
    not to go past the line just weakens it if you do it wouldn't be seen actually
    but then I go back to my you could use a tenon saw if you've got a good big one if
    you don't just use a handsaw I'm going to cross the top
    here keeping to my line like that so I've left my line in and I go down a
    little bit and start dropping my hand with each cut here I want this to be as
    accurate as I can get it off the saw if possible so I've gone corner to corner
    I've got my line on the top and I still have my line in here so I sawn exactly to
    the line flip it around and do the same here using that to guide you going off a
    little bit there we go so I'm listening for the sound now I'm coming into that
    shoulder line there we go
    there's my seat cut here shoulder line let me just clean up a little bit not
    much it looks very nice so you just take off any hump there good and tight there
    pare down the fuzzy bits just so it seats properly don't undercut it because you'll lose
    the full property of the seat cut now let's see where that goes because if
    this one fits which we know it will right then we can do all three others
    the same way this was D and this is D this goes right under here just line up
    that shoulder just feels a little bit tight I might here
    this is probably a good idea just take your chisel and give it just a slight
    leading oops not that much can't go that way can you here level down give
    yourself with just a slight leading edge into that so you don't split off this
    outside edge see if that helps because I want these tight as tight as I can get them
    there we go nice that's really looking pretty good but I need it to go down
    into the seat here can you see underneath there so
    just take a block tap this
    down on to that seat line it's got it and now we can seat this into its joint
    fully just like that nice tight along this edge seat line I need to go down
    again here till it's nice and solid there she blows that's great so now we
    do all the others and we're ready to put this together so now you can start to
    see how the sawhorse is going to sit in a little while you've got your splayed
    legs going in both directions gives it great stability very solid work
    saw horse that's great so we'll do the others and then we'll get back together
    we are about to assemble the legs and fitted them all so they all seem
    perfectly fine after a little bit of fine-tuning just with the chisel on the
    shoulder lines they came up fine I didn't have to alter the shoulder lines just to
    pare down on the fuzzy bits really so this is where we offer the legs and we
    have to really do one at a time because even if they're tight the weight of the
    leg will usually drop down so you just screw one in at a time and we go ahead
    and put this in the vise i'm pressing down into the recess work it so you get
    your shoulders in place and then if all else fails use a big hammer right that's
    it really so what I'm going to do is I'm going to make a sight line across the
    underside of the crossbeam here so this just there so then if you took a chisel
    say a 5/8 chisel or you could measure up from that line just make a line here
    that will mark the bottom for this wire you could either way really and then
    this one wants to go in the middle of the beam here those are my sight lines
    for my drilling holes I'm using a 1/8 pilot hole to go through both up all the
    way to full depth of the drill bit so this allows me to align the drill bit up
    with the perpendicular to the main body of wood not to the leg so it's going
    into a good body of wood inside there then I've got I'm using sixty millimeter
    screws and I want it I want this bit to take the full shank of the screw
    including the threads I'm going to separate this so that I don't drill into
    my pilot hole and then drill through this you can put this in the vise to
    safely oops the bit will just follow the pilot hole where your pilot hole
    countersink here make sure that countersink will take the full head of
    the screw and sink just a little bit below so that will go below the surface
    you don't want the screws flush or protruding in case the saw slips
    then we're going to glue this and we go on the shoulder line too just to give it
    something to bed to and more on here do you need to do the sidewalls you can do
    nothing wrong with that make sure your shoulder line is up tight you get a
    little bit more movement now because the glue will work as a lubricant shoulders
    up tight long as you don't have a gap under here you should be good to go
    these will go now now I should have been ready with the screw bit
    I'm going to let that seat I'm not taking it all the way yet like this like
    this and then I want to check on the underside just to be sure I don't have
    any gaps happy with that and I'm happy inside here that I don't have any joint
    any anything missing there so I'm going to do the others now I'm going to keep
    you with me I'm not going to just go off and do the others because there may be
    idiosyncrasies to each one that might help you when you're doing yours so try
    them before you apply the glue I've already tried these I do know that they
    go but you have to put them in anyway to get everything ready for drilling
    I want to cite these I'm going to do two opposite so this one here
    this one is 5/8 up
    just like that I already did something slightly different to the last
    one I went deeper with my pilot holes these are all as tiny nuances the things
    that you do that we often take for granted really here's one thing I didn't
    do yet and I probably would do it before I got to it I would take the iris off
    all the legs here half-a-dozen strokes just like this just to make it more
    comfortable I did do it on the crossbeam already I already finished that one out
    now we're ready to give it a little bit of glue
    I did it again didn't I this is a little bit tricky oh good
    just take a bite and we can tidy it in a second
    perfect excess glue goes under the bench
    we're good to go on the next one's a little bit more awkward here if you have
    a bench where the vise is not protruding you'll see what I mean when you get to it
    what we'll do here we're going to put this in sight it with the one underneath
    not that we can do much about it
    remember this time
    that gets us very close to the finish finish line
    so we'll leave that to dry and then we'll do the next bit which will be the
    gussets at all four points now not quite we're going to show you how to scribe
    that to make it perfect so that's the next step now I'm going to do the
    gussets first to make sure that the legs are spread exactly and things like that
    but that's the next stage

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