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PBS NewsHour full episode August 09, 2018

PBS NewsHour full episode August 09, 2018
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    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Good evening.
    I'm William Brangham.
    Judy Woodruff is on vacation.
    On the "NewsHour" tonight: Huge fires continue in California, as crews work around the clock
    and evacuated residents seek shelter.
    Then: After weeks of violent escalation along the Israel-Gaza border, a late-day truce may
    hold off a larger war.
    And, as the U.S. gets older, a look at the effort to provide better training for home
    health care workers.
    PAUL OSTERMAN, MIT Sloan School of Management: If they could do more they would be more productive.
    That would justify better compensation for them, which would mean that more people would
    enter into the market, and we will be able to avoid the shortages we will inevitably
    face as the baby boom ages.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: All that and more on tonight's "PBS NewsHour"
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: The death toll from a powerful earthquake on the Indonesian island of Lombok
    has now soared to over 300 people.
    As rescuers dug out more bodies today, the island was shaken by a third strong quake
    in just over a week.
    People jumped out of their cars as the aftershock rocked the island.
    Some tourists said they were almost getting used to the repeated quakes.
    WOMAN (through translator): We don't want anybody to panic.
    This was a smaller earthquake than the one before.
    So we're just going to go back to our hotel because we need to tell them that we're still
    We were out at lunch when it happened and we were walking back.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: The Red Cross is still trying to get aid to about 20,000 people who are
    in desperate need of help.
    Puerto Rico's going to now estimates Hurricane Maria killed at least 1,400 people after it
    hit the island in September 2017.
    That's far more than the official death toll of just 64.
    The acknowledgement came in a report from the U.S. territory asking Congress for more
    funds to rebuild.
    The storm caused widespread outages of electricity and water, which prevented many sick and elderly
    people from getting lifesaving medical care.
    In Yemen, Shiite rebels say at least 50 people were killed today by an airstrike from the
    Saudi coalition in the Northwest of the country.
    More than 70 others were wounded.
    The attack hit a busy market in Saada province.
    Many of the victims were schoolchildren.
    They were rushed to a nearby hospital, bloodied, bandaged and crying.
    MOUSSA ABUDULLAH, Witness (through translator): The strike happened in the middle of the market,
    and it targeted a bus carrying children.
    Our shops were open.
    And shoppers were walking around as usual.
    All of those who died were residents, children and shop owners.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: The U.S. State Department today called for Saudi Arabia's government
    to investigate the attack.
    The Saudis said they were targeting rebels who had fired a missile into Saudi Arabia
    on Wednesday, which killed one person.
    The Saudi coalition of Sunni Muslim countries, with U.S. support, has been fighting the Shiite
    rebels in Yemen since 2015.
    But there's widespread criticism that those airstrikes often kill civilians.
    Back in this country, new testimony today in the trial of former Trump campaign chair
    Paul Manafort shed new light on his alleged bank fraud.
    A mortgage loan assistant from Citizen Bank testified that Manafort lied to secure millions
    of dollars in loans on properties he owned in New York.
    The charges of bank and tax fraud against Manafort occurred in the years before he led
    the Trump campaign.
    A U.S. appeals court in San Francisco has ordered the Environmental Protection Agency
    to ban the widely used pesticide chlorpyrifos.
    The EPA's own research found exposure to the pesticide, which is routinely sprayed on apples
    and citrus, could cause developmental and brain disorders in children.
    The court ruled that the EPA and then its Chief Scott Pruitt had endangered public health
    by reversing an Obama era ban on the pesticide.
    In media news, it's no deal for Tribune Media and the Sinclair Broadcast Group.
    Their would-be mega-merger, worth an estimated $9.3 billion, is over.
    Tribune has withdrawn, and is now suing for breach of contract.
    It claims the conservative-leaning Sinclair failed to sell off some TV stations, as required
    to satisfy federal regulators.
    Sinclair had wanted the merger to help create a rival to FOX News.
    And the Trump administration unveiled new details today about establishing a so-called
    Space Force by the year 2020.
    If approved by Congress, it would be the sixth branch of the military, and led by a four-star
    The Defense Department hasn't yet calculated the cost.
    Stocks were mixed on Wall Street today.
    The Dow Jones industrial average lost 74 points to close at 25509.
    The Nasdaq rose three points, and the S&P 500 slipped four.
    Still to come on the "NewsHour": on the ground in California, where raging wildfires have
    displaced thousands; an apparent truce in Gaza tonight follows a recent escalation of
    attacks; the Kremlin responds to the latest U.S. sanctions; and much more.
    California's Mendocino Complex wildfire became the largest in the state's history overnight.
    It's now burned an area nearly the size of Los Angeles.
    Special correspondent Cat Wise is on the ground in Northern California.
    CAT WISE: A fire of unprecedented size, but scenes of striking familiarity, a thick haze
    over an entire region, homes charred, evacuees at shelters.
    The two fires that make up the Mendocino Complex, northwest of Sacramento, are among almost
    20 blazes burning across California right now.
    The state is poised to see its worst wildfire season ever.
    BRIAN MARTIN, Lake County, California, Sheriff: I hate to call it the new normal, but, unfortunately
    I think it is the new normal.
    CAT WISE: Brian Martin is the sheriff of Lake County, California, where, at its peak, the
    Mendocino Complex displaced almost 20,000 people.
    BRIAN MARTIN: This is our fourth consecutive year dealing with major wildfires.
    Some of the community members have been evacuated every single year for the last four years,
    and some the communities have been evacuated multiple times.
    We are resilient, we are strong, but it is very -- it is challenging.
    And it takes a toll on people.
    CAT WISE: Tamie Hockett-Majesky had to leave her home in Lucerne, a small town on the north
    side of Clearlake.
    She grew up in this area, moved away, and came back three years ago.
    We met her while she was at this Red Cross shelter on the south side of the lake.
    Her home was unharmed, but the stress is mounting.
    TAMIE HOCKETT-MAJESKY, California: What's going to happen next year, and what's going
    to happen the year after that?
    I was really trying to make it work this time around, but with these fires and the cost
    of living going up and businesses are -- everything that is going to be affected by these fires.
    So I want to move out of state.
    CAT WISE: Jeff Baumgartner is the head of the Red Cross Northwest California chapter.
    JEFF BAUMGARTNER, Red Cross: It's taxing to go through this year after year.
    I have met people who have lost multiple homes in the last four years.
    Our disaster cycle services teams and volunteers are just really bouncing from one event to
    the next
    CAT WISE: And how's that impacting them?
    JEFF BAUMGARTNER: I think you do see some level of fatigue at times.
    We try to recruit folks from as close by right away.
    And as people get tired, we bring people from further and further distances to meet the
    I have been saying for three years the word unprecedented, and we're in the fourth year
    of that, so it's no longer unprecedented.
    This is normal.
    MAN: Welcome to the operational briefing for Thursday, August 9.
    CAT WISE: This was the scene at incident command for the Mendocino Complex this morning.
    Some 300 fire supervisors received their orders for the day.
    They relay the information to the firefighters on the line.
    In all, more than 4,000 fire personnel are currently assigned to this fire, and about
    half of are on the fire lines today.
    Firefighter Travis Lopes has been in the Forest Service for 13 years.
    The 32-year-old has two kids under the age of 3, and he says he's lost count of how many
    fires he's been on this year.
    TRAVIS LOPES, U.S. Forest Service: You're always looking for a good place to sleep and
    food and time to call the family.
    It's pretty tough to get a conversation with them because their bed time's at 8:00.
    And, usually, I'm back in camp after 8:00 or get a chance to call home after 8:00, sometimes,
    in the morning, but most of the time, it's just talking to my wife, not the kiddos.
    CAT WISE: Lopes, who says the fire activity has definitely gotten worse in recent years,
    traveled just a few hours to get here from his home in Challenge, California.
    But crews have come from 17 states, and as far as New Zealand and Australia.
    Barry James is the field liaison officer for the Australian firefighters at the Mendocino
    BARRY JAMES, Field Liaison Officer: It's a great opportunity for us to be able to come
    over here and respond to a need.
    It's pretty devastating, what's been going on.
    And we're more than happy to do what we can to help them out.
    CAT WISE: The fires has charred mostly rugged, forested land here.
    So the injuries and property damage haven't been as severe as others burning in the state.
    But as people continue to build homes in more secluded, mountainous areas, Lake County Sheriff
    Brian Martin said they need to take note of the risks.
    The fact that more and more people are living in rural areas, I mean, is that a problem?
    BRIAN MARTIN: I don't know that it's a problem, but it's something that people need to be
    aware of.
    When you choose to live in a rural area, when you want to be out and in touch with nature,
    you give up certain things.
    When a wildfire hits, there are additional issues that you are going to have to be ready
    CAT WISE: Overall, the fires here today are about 50 percent contained.
    The smaller fire to the south is nearly fully contained.
    And crews are starting cleanup efforts there today.
    The much larger fire to the north is only about 50 percent contained, and there's still
    a lot of active fire, especially up in the Mendocino National Forest Area.
    There's not many homes there, but there are several historic buildings that they're really
    trying to focus on today to protect -- William.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Cat, as you reported, there are thousands and thousands of firefighters
    out there working in very difficult conditions.
    Can you tell us a little bit of a bit about what it's like for them?
    CAT WISE: That's right.
    Well, you could perhaps see it's smoky and hot here today at the incident command center.
    The last few days, the weather has actually helped the firefighters in some regard.
    The smoke that you see around me has actually helped them, because there's not been much
    direct sunlight on the ground and the sources of fuel for the fire.
    So they have been making some progress.
    But later today, conditions are actually supposed to change fairly dramatically.
    This high-pressure system keeping the smoke toward the ground is expected to lift.
    And when that happens, sunlight, the sun will come out for the first time in days and hit
    the ground, and really start to heat up the ground.
    And they're expecting that the fire will start to flare up again.
    So that's one of the big things that they're monitoring and watching out for today.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: I understand also that the air quality is really starting to suffer because
    of these prolonged fires.
    What is it like there?
    CAT WISE: Well, I can tell you, I am here at the incident base camp in Ukiah.
    And the closest active fire from us here is about several hours away by car.
    And it is very smoky even here.
    My cameraman and I were out about half-an-hour away today in a rural area, and it was so
    smoky that we could hardly be outside our vehicle for more than a couple minutes.
    We were wearing our N-95 recommended mask, but it was really tough out there.
    Regionally, the smoke has been hovering over much of Northern California for the past 10
    days, stretching all the way from the Sierra Nevada Mountains down to the Bay Area.
    I spoke a little while ago to an official from the Sacramento Metro Air Quality District,
    and he said that they have been monitoring really unhealthy air levels for -- since last
    And what that means is that individuals who don't have underlying health conditions could
    be susceptible to health impacts even just going outside for a few minutes, and especially
    pregnant women, older adults, and young children to stay inside until tomorrow, when that advisory
    is expected to be lifted.
    But it's been a big problem here in Northern California for a number of days now.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: All right, special correspondent Cat Wise, thank you so much.
    CAT WISE: Thank you.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Just in the last few hours, the militant group Hamas, which controls Gaza,
    and Israel have agreed to a truce.
    Tensions had been running extremely high.
    Militants in Gaza have been firing rockets and mortars at Israeli towns.
    And Israeli jets then fired on targets in Gaza.
    In the last decade, Hamas and Israel fought three wars.
    For now, both sides seemed to have pulled back from a fourth.
    Foreign affairs correspondent Nick Schifrin looks at the last 24 hours there and begins
    his story in Gaza City on a tense morning.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: In one of the densest places on the planet, an Israeli airstrike hits a
    single building.
    On a busy Gaza City street, massive bombs dropped by U.S.-made jets shake the ground.
    Since yesterday, Israel's launched more than 150 strikes on Gaza, as Hamas militants release
    video of rockets they fire from Gaza into Israel.
    Hamas has fired more than 180 of the often crude rockets aimed toward nearby Israeli
    It's been four years, the last Gaza war, since the area has been this tense.
    In Israel, the sound of those rockets, and the Israelis firing back, can be terrifying.
    Fearful families wedge themselves behind dumpsters, and try and reassure frightened children.
    In Sderot, one of the Israeli towns closest to the Gaza border, a city worker cleans up
    a sidewalk hit by a Hamas rocket.
    Another left pockmarks on the wall of this apartment complex.
    More than 25 Israelis have been injured.
    Some Gazans have launched incendiary kites over the border, burning nearby fields, including
    Alon (ph), who didn't give his last name.
    MAN: What you see around us is the reality of our lives.
    Every day, we have like tens of fires erupting because of balloons and kites sent from Gaza.
    And the message or the purpose of it is to terrorize our lives.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Often, Israelis try to find space in overcrowded, hardened shelters.
    In Gaza, there are no shelters.
    One strike hit this house.
    The family who lives here says a 23-year-old woman and her daughter, Bayan Khamas (ph),
    were killed.
    Another strike targeted a car and its driver, identified by both sides as a Hamas leader.
    His family said goodbye in the local morgue.
    And another bomb destroyed a water treatment facility, the huge pipe that used to help
    treat water now replaced with raw sewage; 97 percent of Gaza's water is undrinkable,
    and every day sewage flows into the Mediterranean.
    There are only four hours of electricity every day.
    The humanitarian crisis and the frayed nerves from increased airstrikes have overwhelmed
    Gazans, says Gaza researcher for the humanitarian organization Gisha, Mohammed Azaiza.
    MOHAMMED AZAIZA, Gisha: I can't describe the fear in my children when they are hearing
    the bombs.
    I can't describe the crying and the fear in my wife's eyes.
    It takes us back to what happened in 2014 and 2010 and 2009.
    We remember also the crying of the children.
    Also, we remember the huge destruction of the home in Gaza City.
    This is what we remember when we hear the airstrikes.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: But, for Israel, the barrage of Hamas rockets could go unanswered, says
    ambassador Danny Danon, Israel's permanent representative to the U.N.
    DANNY DANON, Israeli Ambassador to the United States: I think what we are doing now is a
    minimum in order to stop the rockets from flying into Israel.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: But Israel doesn't want war.
    And Hamas, despite wanting to look strong, also doesn't want war.
    So both sides agreed with international mediators to a tentative truce.
    DANNY DANON: If it will be quiet in Israel, it will be quiet in Gaza.
    That's what we told all those people who try to mediate and to bring tranquility to the
    We have no reason to seek escalation in the region.
    We want the Israeli children to enjoy their summer vacation.
    We want the Palestinians in Gaza to also enjoy their summer vacation.
    CAT WISE: The long-term humanitarian crisis in Gaza remains, but, right now, Hamas and
    Israel are focused on the short term, hoping tonight stays quiet to avoid having to fight
    a fourth war.
    For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm Nick Schifrin.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Stay with us.
    Coming up on the "NewsHour": addressing the shortage of home care workers; a survivor
    of the Nagasaki atomic bomb visits the very town where fuel for the deadly weapon was
    produced; and a book from two students who lived through the Parkland school shooting.
    But first: The Trump administration yesterday announced new sanctions on Russia.
    They're in response to Moscow's use of a nerve agent on a former Russian double agent, Sergei
    Skripal, and his daughter.
    The attack occurred earlier this year in Britain.
    Russia has denied any involvement.
    Daniel Fried had a 40-year career in the Foreign Service.
    He served on the National Security Council for both Republican and Democratic presidents,
    and during the Obama administration, he crafted U.S. sanctions against Russia when it invaded
    Welcome back to the "NewsHour."
    DANIEL FRIED, Former State Department Official: Thanks for having me.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: So how big a deal with these new sanctions on Russia?
    DANIEL FRIED: It's significant that we are making the Russians pay a price for their
    nerve gas attack in the U.K.
    The sanctions themselves aren't huge.
    They're modest to moderate, and -- in the first round.
    There will be -- there will have to be a second round, or probably be a second round.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: The second round, these are the ones that could end up being imposed
    right around our Election Day in November.
    The way the law is written, the first round of sanctions comes quickly, and then there
    is a three-month pause.
    And if the offending country has not stopped or given us assurances that it won't do it
    again, the administration has to apply new sanctions from a menu.
    That menu goes from light to very heavy.
    So the Trump administration is going to have choices to make.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: So there is some flexibility that they have to go very strong on these
    or to go softer on those?
    DANIEL FRIED: That's right.
    And there are waiver provisions in the law.
    So, the administration will not be boxed in and forced to do something stupid.
    I think that they're going to judge the additional sanctions based on what Russia is doing, but
    it's a -- it's a significant step.
    The Russian markets took a hit today, and that's because sanctions are a game of expectations.
    Are they going up?
    Are they going down?
    Is the administration determined?
    And I think the Russians are beginning to realize that whatever deal or arrangement
    they thought they had or believed they might have with President Trump, the U.S. administration
    is acting in this area and others to push back on Russian aggression, which is a good
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: So is it your sense then that these sanctions will have an impact and
    actually change Russian behavior?
    DANIEL FRIED: That -- I don't want to be extravagant and suggest that suddenly the Russians are
    going to see these sanctions and retreat.
    But certainly it shows that the Russian nerve gas attack in the U.K. is not going to be
    ignored, that the United States stepped up and acted in solidarity with the U.K., with
    a European ally.
    That's a good thing.
    And it's an important lesson to the Russians, that they don't have a free-fire zone to start
    murdering their political opponents around the world while we stand by.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: This, of course, is coming in the midst of a very uncertain relationship
    with the Russians.
    Even put aside Ukraine and Syria, put aside concerns over past meddling in our elections
    and perhaps future meddling in our elections.
    This has got to be a very difficult moment for the administration to figure out how to
    DANIEL FRIED: Well, there are two levels of difficulty.
    One, it is difficult to know the best way to push back against Russian aggression, especially
    when it's in so many areas.
    The Russians invade their neighbor Ukraine.
    They interfere in our elections.
    They try to assassinate people they don't like around the world.
    They're engaged in various corrupt activities all over the place.
    So it's hard to know how to work -- how to figure -- it's hard to figure out how best
    to deal with this challenge.
    But there's a second challenge.
    You have an administration which is acting one way, and a president who is speaking in
    an entirely different way.
    And I have never seen this before.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: You're describing the sort of cleavage between the administration saying,
    we're going to impose sanctions, we're going to crack down, we're going to sanction the
    And yet the president seems completely unwilling to publicly say to Russia, say to Vladimir
    Putin, stop.
    DANIEL FRIED: Before that notorious press conference in Helsinki, when President Trump
    met President Putin, President Trump said publicly that the problems in U.S.-Russian
    relations were largely the fault of America.
    He blamed America first.
    I have never seen a president do that, ever.
    We didn't cause these problems.
    Vladimir Putin did.
    And to have the president go into his meeting with Putin by throwing rocks at his own country
    is something I have never seen.
    I have seen divided governments, a State Department, Defense Department, NSC all have a different
    position, everybody wrangles.
    Sure, normal.
    But to have everybody lined up on one side, and the president on another side, I don't
    know what to make of that.
    It is, let's say, strange.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Daniel Fried of the Atlantic Council, thank you very much.
    DANIEL FRIED: My pleasure.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Amidst the talk of sanctioning Russia, there, of course, remains the ongoing
    probe into that country's interference in the 2016 election.
    And last night, we got a fairly unique look at just how political that investigation has
    MSNBC acquired a secret recording of House Intel Chairman Republican Devin Nunes discussing
    the Russia probe at a fund-raiser:
    DEVIN NUNES (R), California: If Sessions won't un-recuse and Mueller won't clear the president,
    we're the only ones, which is really the danger.
    That's why I keep -- and thank you for saying it, by the way -- I mean, we have to keep
    all these seats.
    We have to keep the majority.
    If we do not keep the majority, all of this goes away.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: I'm joined now by our Capitol Hill correspondent, Lisa Desjardins.
    Lisa, what are we supposed to make of this?
    Devin Nunes has been criticizing the Mueller probe for a long time.
    So, on one level, this isn't surprising.
    But, still, this is the head of the House Intel Committee seeming to imply that his
    job is to protect the president from Robert Mueller.
    LISA DESJARDINS: That's what stands out here.
    Devin Nunes, as you said, is the head of one of the most important committees of Congress.
    His job is oversight of the most sensitive information about protecting this country
    that there is.
    And that job generally has not been partisan in this way.
    On the other hand, Devin Nunes is also someone who was on the steering committee for the
    Trump campaign.
    And it's an issue of how he's been balancing those two roles.
    In this tape, it makes it seem like his priority is to protect and reelect the president vs.
    thinking about intelligence matters.
    Clearly, he's a person who can do both, but in that tape, you want to think about perhaps
    a different Trump administration official, Jeff Sessions.
    He's someone who was in the Trump campaign.
    But he decided to recuse himself when those two things came into conflict.
    That's why Jeff Sessions is not overseeing the Russia investigation, Rod Rosenstein is.
    So, let me play another piece of tape from Nunes about Rosenstein and whether Mr. Rosenstein
    should be impeached.
    DEVIN NUNES: And I've said publicly Rosenstein deserves to be impeached.
    The question is the timing of it right before the election.
    LISA DESJARDINS: Now, that piece of tape right there, William, that shows he's making a policy
    decision and the timing of a policy decision based on politics.
    And he can be political.
    There's nothing against a member of Congress being political, but in the high stakes of
    intelligence, it's something to discuss.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Has Nunes responded to this?
    I know you reached out to him today.
    LISA DESJARDINS: That's right.
    His spokesperson did get back to me and gave me this statement, that: "It is unsurprising
    to see the left-wing media spin Chairman Nunes' routine observations as some nefarious plot
    since, since these same media outlets spent the last year-and-a-half touting a nonexistent
    Russia collusion conspiracy."
    Wow, a lot of that statement, huh?
    Obviously, the idea that the Russia collusion charges are in a conspiracy, that's debatable.
    But, basically, what they're saying here is this is a media invention against Mr. Nunes.
    I will say there are broader questions within the House Republicans' caucus as well.
    Senate Republicans handle this whole matter differently.
    But, for House Republicans, you see a real, I think, conflict between their role as balancing
    out the executive branch -- they are in charge of a separate and equal branch of government
    -- vs. supporting a president whose policy goals they think they can help.
    We have seen this also with Speaker Ryan, who has said he will not put issues on the
    floor that the president will not sign.
    Not new to Republicans.
    Democrats have done similar too.
    But it's a fair question right now.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Does it surprise you that Nunes puts this in the context of the coming
    midterm elections?
    Or does that just seem that's the world we live in?
    LISA DESJARDINS: No, it's not a surprise, especially when you look at polling.
    Look at the partisan difference over this issue in particular.
    For example, Reuters asked just this month, should the Mueller investigation be ended?
    Now, look at that; 64 percent of Republicans agreed that it should end now, just 18 percent
    of Democrats.
    So what you see is, they are playing to their base on this.
    And, really, what is amazing, William, is even as the Trump administration tries to
    beat down on the Mueller investigation, those numbers haven't changed.
    Republicans still have more doubts.
    Democrats have less.
    What is changing is independents are less sure about Mueller.
    They, by and large, support the investigation, but really this kind of talk is about talking
    to the base.
    And that is exactly, literally, what Devin Nunes was doing in that fund-raiser.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Lisa Desjardins, thank you.
    LISA DESJARDINS: You're welcome.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Many of us say we want to stay at home as we grow into old age.
    But as economics correspondent Paul Solman recently reported, the country is facing a
    shortage of home care workers, the very people who can make staying at home possible.
    Tonight, Paul looks at efforts to address that shortage.
    It's part of our weekly series, Making Sense.
    PAUL SOLMAN: America's home care shortage is critical and growing.
    WOMAN: All right, Tom, come sit down for breakfast.
    PAUL SOLMAN: Right now, 90 percent are women, who help older adults and people with disabilities
    get through the daily tasks of living at home.
    The key drivers of the shortage, according to gerontologist Clare Luz:
    CLARE LUZ, Gerontologist: Low wages.
    PAUL SOLMAN: Right.
    CLARE LUZ: Virtually no benefits, lack of guaranteed hours and lack of respect.
    Those are the big-ticket items.
    PAUL SOLMAN: The pay?
    A national average of $10.49 an hour.
    And that's not nearly enough to make up the shortage, says MIT management professor Paul
    PAUL OSTERMAN, MIT Sloan School of Management: We have to find ways to make these jobs for
    these home aides better jobs, so more people are willing to do the work.
    PAUL SOLMAN: On the demand side, the reason is obvious and pressing: The number of elderly
    and disabled in need of assistance is expected to double in the next 25 years.
    PAUL OSTERMAN: It's going to put tremendous pressure on unpaid family members to step
    in, but they're not going to be there in the numbers that we need.
    PAUL SOLMAN: There aren't enough Hellen (ph) Kwants, that is.
    She's been caring for the elderly since she arrived from Colombia at age 22.
    You're now how old?
    HELLEN KWANT, Home Care Worker: Eighty-seven.
    PAUL SOLMAN: And you're still doing it?
    How old is the person you're taking care of?
    HELLEN KWANT: Eighty-seven.
    PAUL SOLMAN: Hellen's daughter, Martha,` is also a home care worker.
    MARTHA KWANT, Home Care Worker: My mom raised us to care for our elderly neighbors, so since
    we were knee-high to boll weevils, we were taking food and helping do this.
    HELLEN KWANT: Yes, we adopted like a grandma.
    PAUL SOLMAN: But Martha wonders if the rest of her fellow Americans are equipped to take
    in aging relatives.
    MARTHA KWANT: As a society, we're not so good about having the patience, as other cultures
    do, to have family move in, or to have that person move in with family and soften the
    approach to that ledge and the fall.
    That's not something most Americans are prepared to do.
    PAUL SOLMAN: So, what to do?
    In his book "Who Will Care For Us?"
    Osterman argues home care workers should be given more responsibilities, like managing
    chronic conditions, and especially more training.
    PAUL OSTERMAN: If they could do more they would be more productive.
    That would justify better compensation for them, which would mean that more people would
    enter into the market, and we will be able to avoid the shortages we will inevitably
    face as the baby boom ages.
    WOMAN: I'm tearing that off.
    I'm not touching my hand.
    PAUL SOLMAN: At a recent session in Grand Ledge, Michigan, called Building Training,
    Building Quality, or BTBQ, experienced home care workers were learning how to train new
    BTBQ curriculum provides baseline training for home care workers.
    The goal is to attract and retain more people, because last year the industry had a median
    turnover rate of 67 percent.
    ALYSSA LAWRENCE, Home Care Coordinator: We're constantly looking for other ways to retain
    our staff.
    PAUL SOLMAN: Participant Alyssa Lawrence thinks more training could lead to higher job satisfaction
    among her employees.
    ALYSSA LAWRENCE: We're trying to break that stigma of you're just a home health aide,
    so this way we're looking at trying to better educate them, better train them and hopefully
    retain our staff a lot better.
    PAUL SOLMAN: But here's the problem: More training in no way guarantees higher pay.
    WENDY MARTIN, Runs Home Care Business: I was gobsmacked on how little they pay for this.
    PAUL SOLMAN: After Wendy Martin (ph) lost her automotive job, she decided to run a home
    care agency with her mom.
    If your work force is better qualified because they have gotten the training that you're
    learning how to give, are they going to earn more money?
    WENDY MARTIN: Probably not.
    PAUL SOLMAN: The reason for that is, most long-term home care is paid for through Medicaid.
    PAUL OSTERMAN: The financing system is a tremendous challenge.
    Medicaid has to compete with education and public safety for resources.
    Medicaid today caps what you can do for these aides in terms of compensation.
    PAUL SOLMAN: But, he says, if home care workers were better-trained and higher-paid, Medicaid
    and insurance companies would actually benefit economically, because patients would avoid
    more expensive medical care.
    PAUL OSTERMAN: Fewer emergency room visits, fewer readmissions into hospitals.
    Secondly, they will save money because they could shift some work from higher paid folks,
    largely nurses, to these aides.
    And they will save money because they will avoid unneeded nursing home entrances.
    PAUL SOLMAN: Clare Luz says the Michigan training program has already provided evidence of cost-saving.
    CLARE LUZ: We were able to demonstrate empirically an association between this comprehensive
    training program and expensive client outcomes, like falls and emergency room visits.
    Just from an economic standpoint, a business standpoint, it's foolish not to be looking
    at this work force.
    HENRIETTA IVEY, Home Care Worker: Your hair is very, very curly and pretty.
    PAUL SOLMAN: Henrietta Ivey has many years of experience, but she says when workers like
    her care for clients dependent on government reimbursements in her native Detroit, the
    pay is still a measly $9.50 an hour.
    HENRIETTA IVEY: They tell you, get skilled, get trained.
    And we do get skilled and get trained, but that money has not changed.
    It hasn't.
    PAUL SOLMAN: After talking to her for a while, I wondered, could Ivey cater to private clients
    who could afford to pay more out-of-pocket to a loving, seasoned pro like her?
    Maybe it's that there is a big entrepreneurial opportunity.
    HENRIETTA IVEY: You have got a good point there, but say, for example, me and a group
    of home care workers say, you know what, let's just start a home care agency.
    PAUL SOLMAN: Right.
    HENRIETTA IVEY: If we don't have money saved, which we don't, because we don't make any
    money to save anything to think on that level, those are our barriers.
    When you don't have that money for your basic needs, those types of ideas are just ideas
    for us.
    We work, we sweat!
    PAUL SOLMAN: So Ivey has become an activist with the Service Employees International Union
    to press for higher wages.
    HENRIETTA IVEY: Somewhere, somebody is going to snap and say, you know what?
    We see the problem here now.
    It ain't that people don't want to work.
    It's not that people are not smart enough.
    We're not paying them enough.
    That's what I like to hear, that sizzle.
    PAUL SOLMAN: And, says Paul Osterman, if we want there to be more home care workers like
    Henrietta Ivey around when we need their services, we will have to advocate for them too.
    PAUL OSTERMAN: We're going to need help, and we're going to wonder where it is and why
    it's not forthcoming.
    And then we will complain.
    And there will hopefully be a politician who will see it in his or her interest to make
    this their issue.
    PAUL SOLMAN: For the "PBS NewsHour," this is economics correspondent Paul Solman reporting
    from Michigan.
    HENRIETTA IVEY: You're welcome.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: A very unique museum in Washington state tells the history of how
    America built one of the atomic bombs dropped on Japan near the end of World War II.
    As Jenny Cunningham of PBS station KCTS in Seattle explains, this museum recently hosted
    a very unique visitor.
    NARRATOR: Our nation possessed the ingredients for the most powerful weapon ever conceived,
    and the secret was out.
    JENNY CUNNINGHAM: As part of the Manhattan Project during World War II, the U.S. government
    chose an area near Hanford, Washington, as the site where scientists would try to produce
    The plutonium was sent to New Mexico, where it was used in the first test of an atomic
    JOHN FOX, Tour Guide, B Reactor Museum: When the bomb was dropped, there was the expectation
    it was so horrible, that it would be the end of the war.
    JENNY CUNNINGHAM: For a decade, the Department of Energy has offered public tours of B Reactor,
    where workers processed uranium into plutonium to fuel some of the first atomic bombs.
    The popular behind-the-scenes look inside a nuclear site has attracted a new kind of
    visitor to Eastern Washington, the atomic tourist.
    But Hanford has never experienced an atomic tourist like this man.
    Of the thousands of people who have toured the world's original large-scale plutonium
    reactor, Mitsugi Moriguchi is the first person to do so in a radiation-blocking jumpsuit.
    It is a startling sight that becomes less surprising when you learn why he's so concerned
    about radiation exposure.
    Moriguchi is believed to be the first survivor of the Nagasaki bombing to visit Hanford.
    When the bomb exploded, he was 8 years old.
    Japanese-American professor Norma Field translates.
    MITSUGI MORIGUCHI, Atomic Bombing Survivor (through translator): It was a huge explosive
    Smoke started rising from all over the city.
    JENNY CUNNINGHAM: Now 81, Moriguchi wanted to see the place that fueled the bomb that
    destroyed his city.
    MITSUGI MORIGUCHI (through translator): I came here because I wanted to know what the
    town that produced plutonium is doing today, and what it plans to go on doing in the future.
    JENNY CUNNINGHAM: Moriguchi has come to make a case that the stories of bomb survivors
    should be part of a new national park created in 2015.
    The Manhattan Project National Historic Park preserves three World War II sites where the
    United States developed the first atomic weapons.
    The Park Service is working on new content that will be presented at Los Alamos, New
    Mexico, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford.
    MITSUGI MORIGUCHI (through translator): We learned that it was going to become a national
    park, and we in Nagasaki were quite worried.
    Was it going to become a national park to express pride?
    JENNY CUNNINGHAM: Moriguchi's visit was organized by two Japanese-American professors, and joined
    by a college student and a film crew from Nagasaki.
    Moriguchi, himself a teacher for 40 years, was eager to tell students at Richland High
    School what it was like to survive a deadly bomb.
    LILI GOLODO, Student: That makes us remember that you were real people and that guys you
    JENNY CUNNINGHAM: He tried to explain to students why he was offended by the mascot painted
    on the gym floor.
    MITSUGI MORIGUCHI (through translator): People walk on it, but, of course, under the mushroom
    cloud, people died, so it is like stepping all over graves.
    I can't forgive that.
    NORMA FIELD, Professor: I think you understood.
    MITSUGI MORIGUCHI (through translator): A shock.
    Just a shock.
    JENNY CUNNINGHAM: Students told Moriguchi about the pride they feel in the school's
    two mascots, a mushroom cloud and Day's Pay, a World War II bomber paid for by Hanford
    RYAN PIPER, Student: What he doesn't understand -- and I know he went through it -- is just
    how much the Day's Pay and the mushroom cloud means to us as a community.
    It's like where we started and to see where we are now.
    It's just a symbol that means a lot to us.
    And, unfortunately, to other people, it's going to bring back the bad stuff.
    JENNY CUNNINGHAM: Standing before this mural did trigger memories for Moriguchi, including
    walking across Nagasaki with his mother a few days after the bombing.
    MITSUGI MORIGUCHI (through translator): There was nothing there.
    But there was smoke rising here and there, everywhere.
    It was the smoke of cremated bodies of those who died.
    JENNY CUNNINGHAM: The city of Nagasaki, which helped fund Moriguchi's visit, wants the suffering
    caused by atomic bombs to be part of the story told by the national park, which is not the
    current narrative.
    Tour guide John Fox, who worked for decades as an engineer at Hanford, described B Reactor
    as a marvel of science that saved lives, including his.
    JOHN FOX: It saved me from being drafted and participating in an invasion of Japan, in
    which case I stood a fair chance of ending up there dead on a beach.
    JENNY CUNNINGHAM: Kris Kirby, the superintendent of the Manhattan Project National Park, said
    the sensitive process of further developing the park will take years.
    That's OK with Moriguchi.
    He's a patient man who has spent the last 72 years telling people about the aftermath
    of the bomb, so that it won't be used again.
    The next time Nagasaki survivors come to Hanford, he hopes they will find a national park that
    represents both American and Japanese points of view.
    For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm Jenny Cunningham in Richland, Washington.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: It's been six months since the massacre at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High
    School in Parkland, Florida.
    Seventeen people were killed that day.
    But out of that tragedy came a group of students dedicated to preventing future school shootings.
    Two of those students, David and Lauren Hogg, describe their experience in a new book, "#NeverAgain.
    A New Generation Draws the Line."
    Hari Sreenivasan recently spoke with them about their movement, and he began with the
    days immediately following the tragedy.
    LAUREN HOGG, Author, "#NeverAgain: A New Generation Draws the Line": I know, for me, I never thought
    I would go through anything like this.
    But those first couple days, you would think it would be so painful, and it was, but, if
    anything, it was more my whole community was numb.
    We were numb.
    We didn't feel anything.
    And that is almost worse than feeling something, because being numb is awful.
    I think it's worse than actually hurting, because you're just so in shock that you don't
    know why you aren't feeling grief yet.
    And that was the worst part of grieving so far.
    HARI SREENIVASAN: And, David, you said one of the reasons that -- of your response was
    your inability to help her.
    DAVID HOGG, Author, "#NeverAgain: A New Generation Draws the Line": Yes.
    To have somebody so close to you like, my sister is to me, and hear them cry that much,
    to the point they can't even speak for days on end, and I can't do anything about it,
    other than just try to prevent other people from having to live through the same experience
    and cry the same tears and go through the same suffering, I couldn't just stand around
    and do nothing.
    I felt that I had to speak up for those that couldn't at the time.
    The people that you see on TV, they aren't characters.
    They aren't numbers.
    They're people.
    They're friends.
    They're daughters.
    They're sons.
    They're parents.
    And they're suffering.
    It's the same suffering you can go through if we don't take action to end this.
    HARI SREENIVASAN: Your advocacy has also made you and your entire family targets.
    You have been called tons of names on the Internet, a crisis actor, part of a false
    flag operation, coached by liberals, etc.
    You have managed to laugh some of it off.
    You have targeted advertisers from very influential critics.
    What's worked best to get you through this?
    DAVID HOGG: Laughing it off really, and being around my family and friends and having their
    support, knowing that what I'm doing is not trying to take people's gun, because I wouldn't
    want to do that.
    On a personal level, I wouldn't like somebody that's trying to do that, because I believe
    in the Second Amendment.
    I just believe in commonsense regulation.
    For example, you used to be able to smoke anywhere in public.
    However, people can still smoke.
    They can go out and drink if they're not going to drive.
    There are ways to approach this where people's guns aren't taken away, and lives are saved.
    It's really common sense.
    HARI SREENIVASAN: David, one of the things that you mention in the book is there is a
    certain -- you know, part of this reason that people are paying attention to this is that
    you are, you know, white middle-class kids in Florida, that this has happened before
    to lots of people, and it's continuing to happen, right?
    And you point out that -- in the book that there's a disproportionate impact that gun
    violence has on poorer communities.
    DAVID HOGG: Absolutely.
    I have now been to the South Side of Chicago and Ferguson, Missouri, and the one thing
    that amazed me most in both places was the strength and resilience and just honest love
    and compassion these people have for each other and their community.
    And it's so saddening to see the amount of suffering that they have had to go through.
    Since the beginning of this school year on the South Side of Chicago, over 150 kids,
    kids just like you were or I was or my sister is, killed under the age of 21.
    And their voices aren't heard.
    In the media and in law enforcement, if you live on a block where there are gangs, even
    if you aren't part of that gang, you get shot, it's automatically attributed to gang violence.
    HARI SREENIVASAN: Lauren, one of the things you and your brother write about in the book
    is that this is a generation that's grown up after Columbine, that you have had red
    alert drills your entire life, that somehow we have normalized this behavior.
    LAUREN HOGG: I was born after Columbine.
    I was 9 when Sandy Hook happened.
    I have grown up waking up every morning, it seems like, and seeing these things on the
    And the thing is, I never realized before this affected me that these aren't things
    that just happen.
    These things shouldn't be happening.
    And that's one of our main issues with this problem, is that we have grown accustomed
    to it as a nation.
    WOMAN: We are coming on the air at this hour with news of a school shooting in South Florida.
    LAUREN HOGG: And until it happens to you, you don't think it's real.
    You don't think it's ever going to happen to you, unless you live in some of these communities.
    But that's the problem.
    I have grown up, like you said, growing through code red drills like every other month.
    And I thought it was normal.
    It's like I never really thought, I'm sitting in this corner because there's a chance that
    somebody might come to my school and murder me.
    HARI SREENIVASAN: Speaking of sitting in the corner, while you were there in that room
    with your friends waiting for the all-clear sign, one of the quotes that stood out to
    you and to me was, you spoke to a woman that said: "I even texted my sisters.
    'Shooting at my school.
    I am safe.'
    They both responded with, 'OMG, LOL.
    You are funny.'"
    DAVID HOGG: Yes.
    We're to the point in this country where people actually joke about school shootings.
    That -- it's almost like our coping mechanism in this country, because it's dark humor,
    because it happens so often.
    Having one school shooting a week should not be normal.
    HARI SREENIVASAN: You have had several legislative victories since you guys have started this.
    You had a march where people all over the world took part.
    It's part of the national conversation, but how do you keep this momentum going?
    DAVID HOGG: The sad thing is, even if Lauren and I just completely stopped right now, there's
    still going to be more mass shootings.
    There's still going to be people dying every day on American streets because our politicians
    refuse to take action.
    They refuse.
    They want to sit back in their complacency and take money from the NRA.
    HARI SREENIVASAN: How are you going to measure your success in the long term?
    Is it about getting people that you want into office in this midterm election?
    Are you playing a kind of longer part?
    DAVID HOGG: I think getting people into office that are morally just.
    But I'm not talking Democrats or Republicans here.
    I'm talking Americans that are not politicians, but are human beings.
    For God's sake, the best way for people to understand what it's like to go through these
    situations or to have -- lose somebody that they know to gun violence is close your eyes
    and imagine the person that you love most that you hold closest to you, and how much
    you love them.
    And now imagine that person is murdered, and you can't do anything about it.
    And when you speak to your politicians, they say, "I'm sorry, but we can't do anything
    about it."
    And then when you speak the people, they don't care, because they didn't know them.
    America needs to learn empathy and put themselves in each other's shoes.
    LAUREN HOGG: When politicians put children and love and happiness over their pocketbooks,
    I think that's when times are really going to begin to change.
    HARI SREENIVASAN: I think the saddest part about this book is, that at the end, you chronicle,
    from Columbine onward, so many different school shootings that have happened, but that the
    worst part is that Parkland wasn't the last one.
    Even since then, there have been multiple.
    So how do you tackle something like that?
    Obviously, we want to get to an era where that doesn't ever happen.
    DAVID HOGG: I think larger than getting just the right people into office and getting more
    people to vote, these movements have to be a cultural shift in America, where we don't
    accept these things like gun violence, we don't accept our children dying every day
    on our streets.
    In the book, I look at myself long and hard.
    I'm very honest about my past.
    I think America has to do the same thing, but about where we are right now.
    That will fix it.
    HARI SREENIVASAN: David Hogg, Lauren Hogg, thank you both.
    LAUREN HOGG: Thank you.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Now for another installment of our weekly series Brief But Spectacular.
    It's where people tell us about their passions.
    Adam Grant is an organizational psychologist at Wharton Business School and an author most
    recently of "Option B," which he co-wrote with Facebook's Sheryl Sandberg.
    In his new podcast, "WorkLife," grant goes inside some of the world's most unusual workplaces
    to discover the secret to better work.
    ADAM GRANT, Psychologist: I read a study not long ago which showed that highly creative
    adults grew up in families where their parents are argued more, not only argued more, but
    argued in front of their children, which, as a dad, I just thought was something you're
    never supposed to do.
    And yet, the more I read about this research, the more I realized that if you never disagree
    in front of your kids, they think there's one right answer to everything, whereas if
    they see you argue, they realize there might be multiple perspectives on a problem, and
    they have to learn to think for themselves.
    It's not how often parents argue that affects kids' well-being.
    It's how constructively they argue.
    There are a few rules for good arguing that I like to
    One is to argue like you're right, but listen like you're wrong.
    Instead of arguing to win, you can argue to learn.
    And then you have to acknowledge when your opponent has a made a good point.
    I think most of us are terrible at hearing criticism.
    Think about what happens to you physically.
    Your shoulders start to tense.
    Your body tightens up.
    Your heart races.
    And you just feel like you're being physically attacked.
    There's an experiment I love about how to give criticism so that other people really
    hear it.
    And it only take about 19 words: I'm giving you these comments because I have very high
    expectations of you, and I'm confident that you can reach them.
    It changes the conversation.
    Instead of saying, oh, no, this person is about to attack me, the person receiving the
    feedback says, oh, this person is trying to help me.
    I have spent a lot of time working with Sheryl Sandberg, the COO of Facebook, and have learned
    a lot from watching her lead.
    One of the things that Sheryl Sandberg noticed was that, as she climbed up the hierarchy
    in her career, people stopped giving her negative feedback.
    Sheryl's obsessed with feedback.
    In fact, she's been told that she asks for too much feedback as a point of feedback.
    One of the things that I have watched her do in meetings is, she will open a meeting
    by giving herself negative feedback out loud, saying something like, I know I talk too much
    in meetings, and I'm trying to work on that.
    The other thing she often does is, she will open a meeting and go through the agenda,
    and then go around the room and ask for every single person to give their viewpoint before
    she shares hers, so that people aren't catering, you know, their opinion to what they think
    the boss wants to hear.
    When I was 26, I was barely out of grad school, and I got signed up to teach a half-day class
    on motivation.
    And after I committed, I found out it was going to be generals and colonels in the U.S.
    Air Force.
    I was half their age.
    They looked like they were right out of the movie "Top Gun."
    I walked in, and I felt like I have to establish my credentials, why I was qualified to teach
    the class.
    And I delivered the class.
    I could tell it wasn't going well.
    And when I read the feedback forms afterwards, it was even worse than I had feared.
    There was one guy who wrote that there was more knowledge in the audience than on the
    There was another who said, I gained nothing from the session, but I trust the instructor
    gained useful insight.
    It was like a dagger to the heart.
    And I wanted to quit.
    But I had already signed up to do a second session.
    I shifted my approach.
    And I walked in.
    And I said, I know what you're all thinking right now.
    What can I possibly learn from a professor who's 12 years old?
    Then I heard a colonel pipe up.
    His code name was Hawk.
    And he said, "No, no, that's way off.
    I'm pretty sure you're 13."
    And after that, I delivered basically a carbon copy of the same material from before, but
    the feedback forms were night-and-day different.
    And I think what I learned from that was sometimes acknowledging our weaknesses, you know, sort
    of admitting our limitations can actually make us stronger.
    My name is Adam Grant, and this is my Brief But Spectacular take on feedback.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: You can watch all our Brief But Spectacular episodes on our Web site,
    And that is the "NewsHour" for tonight.
    On Friday, beyond Charlottesville: reflections on how that violent rally has changed the
    community and the country over the past year.
    I'm William Brangham.
    Join us online and again here tomorrow evening with Mark Shields and Ruth Marcus.
    For all of us at the "PBS NewsHour," thank you, and good night.
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